The Seoul Mini-MD
|Introduction to Medicine
Overview of medical education, medical ethics & medical systems plus a summary of global health trends. An overview of the approach to the patient including principles of history-taking, physical examination, and medical documentation.
Embryology & Anatomy I
A primer of basic embryology (primary germ layers, endoderm, ectoderm & mesoderm, plus totipotency, pluripotency, and stem cells). An introduction to the principles of anatomy (anatomic position, orientations, body planes and nomenclature).
|Anatomy II (Histology, Anatomic Differential Diagnosis)
Principles of histology including staining techniques, an overview of cell structure and function as well as the basic tissue types (epithelial, neural, connective tissue & muscle). A review of anatomic systems along with principles of anatomic differential diagnosis using the acute abdomen, RLQ tenderness and neck masses as prototypical examples.
Physiology I (Molecular & Cellular Physiology)
An introduction to molecular & cellular physiology (resting potential, action potential, ion channels, synapses, cytoskeletal & actin/myosin dynamics). Homeostasis & rheostasis; receptor-mediated endocytosis, paracrine signaling systems.
|Physiology II (Systemic Physiology)
Basic principles of cardiovascular (systemic & pulmonary circulations, arteries/veins/capillaries, cardiac muscle fibers & specializations, EKG, Starling’s Law), respiratory (oxygen carrier proteins, oxygen binding curves, model of the respiratory system, ventilation-perfusion ratios), digestive (stomach & intestines, liver & pancreas, portal circulation and basic glucose metabolism), and endocrine physiology (principles of homeostasis, hormone action, and signal transduction).
An overview of biological molecules including organic molecules & water, carbohydrates & fats, proteins and nucleic acids. Review of basic enzymology including reaction kinetic, the Michaelis-Menten equation, and enzyme regulation. A review of gene expression mechanisms including the genetic code, transcription (including RNA splicing), translation, and genetic testing. Basic pathways in metabolism are also discussed: Glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, electron transport, and oxidative phosphorylation. Metabolic syndrome also introduced. Clinical correlations and the molecular basis of disease emphasized.
An introduction to neuroscience including basic nervous system organization, development, and the physiology of nerve cells. The functional anatomy of the spinal cord, brain stem (including cranial nerves), and cerebrum are discussed. The session concludes with an introduction to the basic neurologic examination (including mini-mental status exam).
|Microbiology & Immunology
An overview of virology (structure, classification, life cycle and HIV) and bacteriology (structure, classification, life cycle, genetics, pathogenesis). Basic immunology is also discussed including immunologic cells & tissues, development of the immune system, humoral immunity (antibodies), cell-mediated immunity, and mechanisms of inflammation.
An introduction to pathology including key definitions, aspects of disease and etiology as well as methods of study (autopsy, cytology, biopsy). Overview of mechanisms of cellular injury & response, agents of disease and principles of general pathology including inflammation, repair, neoplasia (with hallmarks of cancer—benign and malignant) and degeneration.
Basic principles of pharmacokinetics & pharmacodynamics; overview of the drug approval process. Drug classification (ATC codes, PhRMA system, WHO List of Essential Medicines) as well as recent advances in pharmacology including targeted therapies, pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics, convergent medical technologies, drug development challenges.
|Epidemiology & Public Health
Principles of general medical practice including “Top Ten Lists”, health promotion and screening guidelines. Fundamentals of epidemiology: Bayes’ theorem, sensitivity & specificity, screening, and advances in point-of-care testing.
|Healthcare Systems and the Medical Industry
Structure of the medical profession. A comparative overview of healthcare systems worldwide. Status and structure of the healthcare industry: biopharmaceuticals, medical devices, and healthcare services. Digital healthcare & trends.
|Internal Medicine I (Cardiology, Pulmonology)
Basic cardiology including ischemic heart disease (and acute coronary syndromes), valvular heart disease, arrhythmias, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and peripheral vascular disease Basic concepts of cardiac catheterization and interventional cardiology. Introduction to pulmonary diseases including asthma, obstructive, restrictive (interstitial) and vascular diseases; respiratory failure as a final common pathway and venous thromboembolism (VTE & PE). Overview of lung cancer (small cell, non-small cell) and paraneoplastic syndromes reviewing also the status of lung cancer screening.
|Internal Medicine II (Nephrology, Gastroenterology)
Fundamentals of nephrology including principles of electroylyte, fluid balance, acid/base and blood gas analysis, acute renal failure (ARF), chronic renal failure (CRF), and nephrolithiasis. Principles of hemo- and peritoneal dialysis. Introduction to gastroenterology including an overview of nutrition and nutritional support (TPN), esophageal disorders, gastritis & peptic ulcer disease (PUD), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), diverticular disease, biliary tract diseases (including cholecystitis), pancreatitis, hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Assessment of the acute GI bleed and principles of endoscopy. Brief summary of colorectal cancer with an emphasis on medical oncology (chemo- and targeted therapies.)
|Internal Medicine III (Infectious Diseases, Endocrinology, Rheumatology, Hematology-Oncology)
Principles of infectious diseases including antimicrobial therapy, bacteremia/septic shock, respiratory and urinary tract infections. Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases including hepatitis, HIV and TB. Introduction to endocrinology covers diseases of the pituitary, thyroid (hyper/hypo, primary/secondary & evaluation of the thyroid nodule), and adrenal glands as well as diabetes mellitus (Type 1/Type 2). Rheumatology review covers arthritis (rheumatoid vs. osteo), connective tissue diseases, lupus, and vasculitis. The summary of hematology-oncology covers blood transfusions, anemia (macrocytic, microcytic, normocytic), abnormalities in coagulation & hemostasis, cancer chemotherapy, leukemia, lymphoma & multiple myeloma. General trends in targeted cancer therapies and companion diagnostics also discussed.
|Obstetrics & Gynecology
General gynecology including female anatomy, menstrual abnormalities, sexually-transmitted diseases, and pelvic inflammatory disease. Reproductive gynecology reviews the menstrual cycle, infertility, and menopause. Gynecologic oncology covers cervical cancer (colposcopy, Pap test, staging vs. grading, and TNM system), ovarian cancer, and endometrial carcinoma. General obstetrics including the physiology of pregnancy, basics of prenatal care, labor & delivery (including abdominal delivery), and complicated pregnancy (gestational hypertension and gestational diabetes).
Differences between children and adults. Health maintenance and development (normal & abnormal). Principles of the pediatric history & physical exam. Basics of neonatology including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal jaundice, necrotizing enterocolitis, and neonatal infections. Recurrent infections in childhood and basics of pediatric oncology (childhood leukemia, Wilms’ tumor, neuroblastoma and lymphoma, both Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s).
|Surgery I (Principles of Surgery, Surgical Emergencies & Trauma)
History of key enabling developments in surgery including surgical anatomy, anesthesia, antisepsis, blood transfusion, and minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Principles of surgery: the three “Ts”, risk-benefit ratios and patient selection. Key clinical surgical emergencies: the acute abdomen, trauma, and shock. Summary of advanced trauma life support (ATLS).
|Surgery II (Surgical Oncology & Transplantation) & Anesthesia
Fundamentals of surgical oncology: prevention, diagnosis, treatment, palliation, rehabilitation. Colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and breast cancer. Principles of transplantation medicine & surgery, including pre-transplant screening, determination of brain death, the transplant gap; methods in kidney and liver transplantation. Fundamentals of anesthesiology: history, general anesthesia, and regional anesthesia. Principles of patient monitoring.
|Surgical Subspecialties (Ophthalmology, Otolaryngology, Cardiothoracic Surgery, Orthopedics & Urology)
Overview of ophthalmology (anatomy & physiology, basic symptoms, common conditions such as conjunctivitis, cataracts, glaucoma, nasolacrimal obstruction, uveitis, amarosis fugax, retinal detachment); otolaryngology (anatomy and common complaints, pain, tinnitus, dizziness/vertigo, hearing loss); fundamentals of dermatology; cardiothoracic surgery (principles of vbypass surgery, heart and lung transplantation), orthopedic surgery (principles of bone and soft tissue repair, fracture care, internal and external fixation, joint replacement), and urology (urolithiasis, prostatitis, prostate cancer, bladder cancer).
|Neurology & Neurosurgery
Overview includes coma, epilepsy (general & partial), cerebrovascular (hemorrhagic/ischemic plus stroke syndromes), demyelinating (multiple sclerosis), neoplastic (brain tumors), and degenerative (Parkinson’s/Alzheimer’s) diseases. Fundamentals of neurosurgery including the management of traumatic brain injury, intracranial bleeding, raised intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebrovascular diseases (including aneurysms), neurooncology and functional neurosurgery.
Top psychiatric diagnoses and classification schemes (ICD-10, DSM-IV). Overview of thought, mood, and anxiety disorders. Psychosis, schizophrenia, depression. Principles of psychopharmacology and neurotransmitter pathways.
|Radiology & Radiation Oncology
Overview of medical imaging including review of key modalities (x-ray, CT, MRI, U/S, PET). Principles of radiologic interpretation. Fundamentals of radiation oncology and radiosurgery including mechanisms of tissue damage and repair.